2014-April Pulsotron-2 test report

Javier Luis López Segura
Judy Atkins
Abstract.-
Cuenca, in the April 2014 test campaign the pressure ignition conditions were reached once again. Refurbished “RBR” plasma temperature sensors with enhanced shielding were used to measure Plasma performance.
New Plasma Thrusters to be used in nuclear heavy or light particles bombardment fusion and also in spacecraft propulsion were tested.
High speed particle measurement systems that can be used to measure plasma dimensions and ion temperature were tested.
It was tested high speed particle measurement systems that can be used to measure plasma dimensions and ion temperature
A new ignition system for improving the efficiency of classical gas engines was tested.

Table of contents
1. Plasma pressure test results.-
2. Plasma temperature and speed measurements.-
3. Plasma thruster test
4. Gas engine ignition system test
5. Radiation sensor
6. Conclusions.-
7. References.-
8. Some high speed video captures.-

1. Plasma pressure test results.-
The maximum pressure of High Pressure Plasma was obtained. The pressure was measured with the same method and used in the same way as that used during Pulsotron verification [9] with the following results:
a1
Plasma pressure tests result

As can be seen, most of the targets reached 1015 Pascal pressure.
The results were compared with other fusion machines, also some war heads as can be seen in references [1] to [6]

2. Plasma temperature and speed measurements.-
We used RBR sensors according to paper reference [7] but the reflective scintillator filter in form of a needle [8]
X rays emission peaks could be confirmed , without signal noise as long as the sensor was electrically isolated:
a2-1
In channel 2 the output radiation was measured using a photoelectric sensor at 1.60m from the target
In channel 3 the output radiation is measured by using an RBR sensor at only 10mm from the target
In Channel 4: the output pulse is measured at 12mm from the target by using a voltage probe.
Then it can be seen that the injection begins at mark “1”, then both radiation sensors begin to measure
On reaching mark “2” when the plasma is broken, it can be seen that the HPM begins to emit out of range of sensor at CH2, in the x rays and UV range , then the radiation sensor at CH2 reduces its inclination a little as long as this sensor does not work at far UV and X rays radiation.
Then at mark “3” the front wave of the plasma blast is detected.
a2-2
3. Plasma thruster test
A Plasma thruster was built according to the following drawing:
a3-1
Where M is the molecular weight in kg/mol (0.029 for copper)
R=8.314 J/mol K
T in kelvin

For plasma temperature of 120eV vrms = 34600m/s. The basic idea is to heat the matter to a high temperature and then it is expanded away from the nozzle.
a3-2
It is designed for 150 kilowatts output power without nuclear fusion and between 20 and 50 times higher with nuclear fusion.
As a result the test tower was dismantled due to the fact that it obtained too high power thrust, but power efficiency was low because a great part of the Pulsotron power was lost as radiation.
a3-3
Plasma emission power
The output power of plasma thrusters – 1 and 4 was 18.7 and 22 Megawatts respectively and the plasma output speed was almost double that of the previous version from 0.9 to 1.95 km/s which is still far from the maximum theoretical speed.
4. Gas engine ignition system test

a4-1
The past year a new ignition system was tested to increase gas engine efficiency by at least 10%. Unfortunately the tests failed. Then we redesigned the ignition system and added an additive to the fuel oil. As a result the greater part of the fuel was burned within 150 microseconds as it can be seen in the following oscilloscope plot:
a4-2
5. Radiation sensor
A radiation sensor was tested using an RF Schottky diode that works up to 6 gigahertz that was connected to a specially designed RF wideband antenna. As a result no radiation was detected. It must be due to the good performance of the RF design of the Pulsotron
6. Conclusions.-
Once again Pulsotron – 2 reached pressure ignition conditions in all the successful targets.
Plasma thruster works well at high power but the design must be reviewed to include magnetic propulsion instead of working at high temperature.
Gas engine ignition system works at a very high performance and can be included not only in F1 cars but also in any other oil powered engines. It can also power aircraft flying at high altitude.
7. References.-

[1] High Energy Density Physics: Z-pinches and Pulsed Power
Dr. Christopher Deeney, Sandia National Laboratories, 2011

[2] NIF Project Status – 2012

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Ignition_Facility

[4] The only one article found is not signed and has not name: http://www.psfc.mit.edu/library1/catalog/online_pubs/iap/iap2011/cowley.pdf

[5] Thermonuclear weapon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermonuclear_weapon

[6] The Nuclear Weapons Archive, Elements of Thermonuclear Weapon Design 2005 http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Nwfaq/Nfaq4-4.html

[7] 2014, High speed reflective scintillation broadband “RBR” sensors for Pulsotron, other Z -pinches and high power laser uses, J. Lopez , Chris Costa, Jorge Lopez

[8] 2014, Z-pinch high power needle filter, J. Lopez , Chris Costa, Jorge Lopez

[9] 2014, Pulsotron-2 ignition conditions verification, J. Lopez , Chris Costa, Jorge Lopez

8. Some high speed video captures.-

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About jlopez2022

Experimental Physicist
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